1.  The phonetic sounds to speak standard English usage.
  2.  There are 26 letters and 44 sounds in English language.  The sounds are broadly classified into consonants and vowels
  3.  We can use IPA  (INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHBET)  symbols to represent phonemes and the pronunciation of the words of a particular language
  4.  The written representation is called a Phonetic Transcription.
  5.  Such transcription is placed between two forward slashes //   //

Consonant sounds with examples:

Sl NoSoundExamplesFew more Examples Underline the phonetic sound  
1/p/pet, mapCapture, polite, impossible  
  2 /b/bat, nib  Cable, slab, tub
3/t/tea, net  Tribute, hotel, but
4/d/done, ready  Danger, distribute, deny
5/k/cat, back  Comfortable, cat, increase
6/l/leg, little  Lazy, fooled, laugh
7/m/man, lemon  Tamarind, camel, remind
  8   /n/no, ten  Net, monkey, hen
9/h/how, hello  Behind, hill, house
10/f/find, if  Flexible, fine, deaf
11/g/give, flag  Game, gradual, ugly
12/r/red, try  Current, arrest, friend
13/s/sun, miss  Best, classic, secret
14/ʃ/she, crash  Smash, washed, polished
15/tʃ/check, church  Church, champion, lunch
16/θ/think, both  Thin, thorn, author
17/ð/this, mother  These, that, southern
18/v/voice, five  Violence, review, invest
19/ŋ/sing, finger  Ring, wing, running
20/dʒ/just, large  Bridge, soldier, judge
21/ʒ/pleasure, vision  Leisure, measure, garage
22/j/yes, yellow  University, unity, union
23/w/win, window  Wonder, wow,widow
24/z/zoo, crazy  Zeal, cousin, visit

 Vowel sounds with examples

Sl NoSoundExamples   Few more Examples
1  /ɪ/hit, sittingFit,    sit,    thin,    bit
2  /i:/see, heatFeel,   meet,    tea,  east
3  /ʊ/put, couldFood  ,   would,     full
4  /u:/blue, foodPool,   group,    true
5  /ɒ/hot, rockGot,   caught,   what
6  /ɔ:/call, four All, whole,   squad
7  /ə/away,cinemaAmong,   another,   again,  among,  above,
8  /ɜ:/turn,learnEarth,  nerve,  curve,  earn
9  /ʌ/cup, luckMud,  sun,  shut, up,  fun, run,
10  /ɑ:/arm,fatherCalm,  ask, palm, form,
11     /æ/cat, blackApple,  and,  had, bad, ran, mad
12  /e/met, bedGet,   net,   pen,   neck,
13  /aɪ/five, eyeI, eye,  pie,   sight,  shy
14  /aʊ/nowoutOwl,   count,  sound,   now,   loud
15  /eɪ/sayeightAce,    pray,  obey,   weigh,  break
16  /əʊ/go, homeBowl,    show,   no,  comb
17  /ɔɪ/boy, joinOil,  oyster,  coin,  voice,  boy
18  /eə/whereairchair,  parents,   late,  bate
19  /ɪə/near, hearCheer,      beer,    deer,   ear Fear, mere, seek
20  /ʊə/pure, touristTour,   poor,  sensual,  cure,  jury

E N G L I S H   P H O N E M E S

Consonant Sounds


English pronunciation contains 6 plosive phonemes: /p,b,t,d,k,g/: They completely block the flow of air as it leaves the body followed by releasing the air.

The sounds /b,d,g/ are voiced- they are pronounced with vibration in the vocal cords.

/p,t,k/ are voiceless; they are produced with air only. The voiceless plosives are often aspirated (produced with a puff of air) in English pronunciation.

/p/: pure
/b/: ball
/t/: ten, stopped
/d/: does, played
/k/: kit, core, queen, chronic, excited
/g/: gang, exhaust


There are 9 fricative phonemes In English pronunciation: /f,v,θ,ð,s,z,ʃ,ʒ,h/ made in 5 positions of the mouth. The Fricatives squeeze air between a small gap as it leaves the body.

The fricative sounds /v,ð,z,ʒ/ are voiced, they are pronounced with vibration in the vocal cords, whilst the sounds /f,θ,s,ʃ,h/ are voiceless; produced only with air.

/f/: far
/θ/: thank
/ð/: these
/s/: so,race
/z/: zoo,rise
/ʃ/: ship, sugar,motion
/h/: ahead

3)  Affricates

English pronunciation has 2 affricate phonemes. The Affricates  start with a plosive (full block of air) and immediately blending into a fricative (partial block).

/tʃ/ is a voiceless affricate consonant sound, it is pronounced only using the release of air. /dʒ/ is a voiced affricate consonant sound, the vocal cords vibrate as the sound is produced.

/tʃ/: cheese, catch, digestion, gesture

/dʒ/: agenda, jar, hedge

4)   Nasals

English pronunciation has 3 nasal phonemes. The Nasals block air in the mouth and releasing sound through the nose:  

/m/:  mom, same
/n/: next, nun
/ŋ/: working, think

5) Approximants

English pronunciation has 3 approximant phonemes. The Approximants bring two articulators close together touching as sound leaves the body.

All of these approximant sounds are voiced, the vocal cords vibrate as the sound is produced.

/w/: went, quite, once
/r/: road, read
/j/: yawn, fuel, few






Vowel Sounds:

English Vowel IPA Examples – Short Single Vowels:

Vowel Phonetic Symbols   &    IPA Examples in Words.


pit   /pɪt/


attention /əˈtenʃən/

/æ/ –

family /fæməli/


But /bʌt/ 


pull                  /pʊl/
look                 /lʊk/





English Vowel IPA Examples – Long Single Vowels

Vowel Phonetic Symbol   &    IPA Examples in Words


media /miːdijə/


mark               /ma:k/
article            /ɑːtɪkəl/


fork                /fɔ:k/
August           /ɔːɡʌst/


heard              /hɜ:d/
Word                /wɜ:d/

/ u:/ 


English Vowel IPA Examples – Diphthong (double) Vowels

Vowel Phonetic Symbol   &    IPA Examples in Words


place /pleɪs/
dangerous /deɪndʒərəs/

/ ɔʊ/ 

phone  /foʊn/
global                      /ɡloʊbəl/


mouse  /maʊs/
brown /braʊn/
accountant                 /əˈkaʊntənt/




Declare  /dɪkleə/


enjoyable /ɪndʒɔɪjəbəl/


site /saɪt/
tiger  /taɪɡə/


tour  /tʊə/
mature /mətʃʊə/


  1. The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
  2. I thought a thought.
    But the thought I thought
    Wasn’t the thought I thought I thought.
    If the thought I thought I thought,
    Had been the thought I thought,
    I wouldn’t have thought I thought.
  3. Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the three-D thoughts of Matthew the thug – although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty-year-old thug thought of that morning.
  4. Thirty-three thousand feathers on a thrushes throat.

 Challenge your friends to TWIST THEIR TONGUES

  1. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers;
    A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked;
    If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
    Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked
  2. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck
    if a woodchuck could chuck wood?
    He would chuck, he would, as much as he could,
    and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would
    if a woodchuck could chuck wood.
  3. I scream, you scream,
    We all scream for ice cream.
  4. Betty Botter bought some butter but, said she, the butter’s bitter.
    If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
    But a bit of better butter will make my bitter batter better.
    So she bought some better butter, better than the bitter butter,
    put it in her bitter batter, made her bitter batter better.
    So ‘t was better Betty Botter bought some better butter
  5. She sells seashells on the seashore.
    The shells she sells are seashells, I’m sure.
    And if she sells seashells on the seashore,
    Then I’m sure she sells seashore shells.
  6. Yally Bally had a jolly golliwog. Feeling folly, Yally Bally Bought his jolly golli’ a dollie made of holly! The golli’, feeling jolly, named the holly dollie, Polly. So Yally Bally’s jolly golli’s holly dollie Polly’s also jolly!
  7. Birdie birdie in the sky laid a turdie in my eye.
    If cows could fly I’d have a cow pie in my eye.
  8. How much ground would a groundhog hog, if a groundhog could hog ground? A groundhog would hog all the ground he could hog, if a groundhog could hog ground.
  9. Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread.
    Spread it thick, say it quick!
    Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread.
    Spread it thicker, say it quicker!
    Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread.


  1. Don’t eat with your mouth full!
    1.  I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.
    1. Blue bluebird.
    1.  Red lorry, yellow lorry
    1. Daddy Draws Doors.
    1. Three free throws
    1. The big bug bit the little beetle.
    1. Friendly fleas and fireflies
    1. Fresh fried fish.
    1. Specific Pacific
    1. Fred fed Ted bread and Ted fed Fred bread.
    1. Betty’s big bunny bobbled by the blueberry bush.
    1. Six sticky skeletons.
    1. Green glass globes glow greenly
    1. Fuzzy Wuzzy was a bear. Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair. Fuzzy Wuzzy wasn’t very fuzzy, was he?
    1. If a dog chews shoes, whose shoes does he choose?Rubber baby buggy bumpers.

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